Short floaty skirt, 2005
Boho-chic is a style of drawing on various and influences, which, at its height in late 2005 was associated particularly with actress and model in the and (as "boho" chic) actress and businesswoman in the. It has been seen since the early 1990s and, although appearing to wane from time to time, has repeatedly re-surfaced in varying guises. Many elements of boho-chic became popular in the late 1960s and some date back much further, being associated, for example, with women of the mid-to-late 19th century.
LexicographySherlock Holmes "upon the sofa in a purple dressing gown" in The Adventure of the Blue Carbuncle (Illustration by Sidney Padget, Strand Magazine, 1891)
"BoHo" is an abbreviation of Bohemian Homeless, self descriptive of the style.
Vanessa Nicholson (granddaughter of, one of the pivotal figures of the unconventional, but influential "" in the first half of the 20th century) has described it as a "curious slippery adjective". Although the original were inhabitants of central, the term has, as Nicholson noted, "attached itself to individuals as disparate as and ". The writer and historian remarked that, "in his dress-sense as in much else", was "pre- Bohemian", his unbleached suit causing surprise when he arrived in in 1943.
In 's first short story about Holmes for The Strand, noted that the detective "loathed every form of society with his whole Bohemian soul" and "remained in our lodgings in Baker-street, buried among his old books and alternating from week to week between cocaine and ambition..". Designer, elder sister of actress Sienna Miller, described a "real bohemian" as "someone who has the ability to appreciate beauty on a deep level, is a profound romantic, doesn't know any limits, whose world is their own creation, rather than living in a box".
"" was borrowed from French in the late 19th century and has come to mean stylish or.
ElementsFurry, Autumn 2005
The boho look, which owed much to the styles that developed in the middle to late 1960s, became especially popular after 's appearance at the in 2004, although some of its features were apparent from photographs of her taken in October 2003 and of others living in or around the postal district of W10 (), an area of associated with bohemian culture since the mid-1950s.
By the spring of 2005, boho was almost ubiquitous in parts of London and was invading stores in almost every British high street. Its adherents were sometimes referred to as "Siennas", this eponym even being applied to Miller herself: "Sienna's Sienna-ishness", as Jessica Brinton put it in the Sunday Times in 2007. Features included "floaty" skirts (notably long white ones), furry, embroidered tunics, cropped jackets, large faux-coin belts, sheepskin () boots and, baggy cardigans and "". Demand was so great that there were allegations the following year of some sub-contractors' having used cheap child labour in for embroidery and.
Footless or "", of which Miller was a proponent, were a contributory factor in the halving of sales of in Britain between 2003 and 2007.
Sienna Miller in the early 2000s
Sienna Miller's relationship with – and, for a time, to – actor, after they had starred together in the 2004 film,, kept both her and her style of dress in the media headlines during 2004–05. In December 2004, featured Miller on its front cover and described her as "the girl of the year". Later, the ending of her relationship with Law (which resumed temporarily in 2009–10) seemed to signal that boho too was past its peak. In fact, as early as May 2005 the Sunday Times Style magazine had declared that "overexposed" white peasant skirts were "going down" and had advised adherents of boho to "update your boho " by mixing the look with metallic items (anticipating so-called "" in 2006) or with layers. By the end of 2005, Miller herself, who claimed later that her boho look was not very original – "I think I'd just come back from traveling or something" – had adopted other styles of dress and her shorter, – ironically a feature of bohemian fashion in the quarter century before – helped to define a new trend in 2007. She was quoted in Vogue as saying "no more boho chic... I feel less hippie. I just don't want to wear anything floaty or coin-belty ever again. No more gilets...". Even so, in 2008, Miller reflected that
It was a strange social experiment, to be responsible for all that. It made me self-conscious, which, inherently, I'm not. People would say, "I'm sick of boho", and now I stand up and say, "But I liked those clothes – it's not my fault that they were copied, you wore them and now you're sick of them. Also, I did not start the trend."
2007–08: folk, "diluted", and Balearic boho
In the autumn of 2006, The Times' style director Tina Gaudoin observed that "when the women's wear buyer at M[arks] & S[pencer] is quoted saying 'boho is over', you know the trend is well and truly six foot under." Even so, the so-called "" look of spring 2007, with its smock tops and flounce hemmed dresses, owed much to boho-chic, while embracing such trends as the re-emergence of the : as the Sunday Times put it, "if you are still bemoaning the passing of the gypsy look, then the folk trend could be your saving grace". The Sunday Times cited the 1960s singer as influencing the use of, while, around the same time, Sienna Miller's appearance as 1960s "starlet" in the film positioned her once more as a bohemian style icon. London Lite observed in May 2007 that:
You may baulk at the very word, but this summer's style has definite nuances of boho – albeit in a very diluted form. Sienna Miller's gipsy skirt brigade somehow didn't finish this feminine trend off for good, and some of the less contrived ingredients – embroidery, leather, gentle frills – are back.
Noting that "this time it's much more about a deconstructed, looser version of English Country Garden style", London Lite recalled the early 1970s designs of – "all folds of floral cotton and centre partings". Actresses and were cited as exponents of this look, while (daughter of Sir, of the, and ) was said to be promoting her own style of " boho" on the island of, a long-time haven for and hippies who colonised the village of in the 1960s.
The Tatler wrote of Jagger – "the original 'Boho'" – that she "lives, breathes and creates a certain kind of contemporary "bohemian" chic", although Jagger herself claimed to be "a little wary of the word "bohemian"", describing her approach as "daring to mix... combining things that are unexpected". Jagger modelled for designer, whose style has been described as combining "Ibiza glamour" with "London cool". Sienna Miller has written that, when she first met Williamson, whose she became, in her mother's kitchen in 2001
she had a magazine on the table with Jade Jagger wearing the most beautiful bright dress I had ever seen. I remember thinking it was my dream dress. I now feel that way about almost every dress of Matthew's I have worn".
In 2011 "destination dressing" for Ibiza was still deemed to "embrace boho chic with a hint of understated glamour"
When, in August 2007, Sienna and Savannah Miller launched their own fashion label, Twenty8Twelve (so-called after Sienna's birthday, 28 December), one commentator referred to Sienna's "own brand of chic" (a reference to London W10) and remarked that, "with [her] love of all things boho, it's unsurprising to see a thread of louche, folksy styling running through the line". However, the same writer observed wryly that "quite how many French peasants hoed fields in printed smocks is undocumented" and felt that one particular shirt-dress was "a little too reminiscent of in ". The following year, the Sunday Times, noting that one in two Americans and one in five Britons were reportedly sporting, observed that Miller "complete[d] her luxe-layabout look with a cluster of stars on her silken shoulder"; that she had also a tattoo of a bluebird, the subject of both a poem by and a drawing by Edie Sedgwick; and that Kate Moss displayed "two swallows diving into her buttock crack".
Recession of 2008–10: broderie, exotic lingerie, 70s glam/beatnik
In 2008 fashion consultant cited a top worn by of the group as evidence that "the folk/boho look is so hot for summer", while Marks & Spencer employed the headline "Bohemian Rhapsody" to summarise its summer range, which owed much to the colours and patterns of the early 1970s. At the beginning of June that year fashion writer Carrie Gorman announced that "this week, shopping is about going bright and bold with a boho feel", citing, among other trends, multi-coloured ("or dress, according to your height") by Harlow, said to be the favorite label of American actress. Bilson has cited Kate Moss and actress as among her stylistic influences; striped multi-colored panties with brodierie edging were a feature of her photographic shoot for magazine in 2004.
Another, rather distinctive, exponent of the "vintage" look was actress and singer, who, in June 2008, appeared on the front cover of the magazine in a black lace-edged. In the same year, a journalist wrote of Deschanel:
... she's the antistarlet... She tiptoes in looking like a graceful version of boho-chic 29-year-olds found everywhere from Brooklyn to Silver Lake, with an [Democratic Presidential candidate] button on her vintage coat and [t]he rolled up in her pocket...
Deschanel's "kooky" style subsequently found a popular outlet as teacher Jess Day, whom she played in the, (2011-). Jess's fashion preferences, including some striking brassières in a range of colours, attracted much interest, while, around the same time, Anastasia (Ana) Steel's tastes in ' best-selling erotic novel (2011) were thought to have assisted sales of exotic lingerie. Blue was a favoured color ( as Dr. Emma Kurtzman was shown dressing hastily for work in a lacy blue bra in the 2011 film, ) and was Ana's own preference: "I'm in the pale blue lacy perfect-fit bra. Thank heavens". In 2010, the winning German entry for the proclaimed, "I even did my hair for you/I bought new underwear, they're blue" (, sung by ). In 2013 the former "little hippie" contestant wore blue panties (with a short white top bearing the legend, "LOST MY MIND") for a widely publicised photoshoot for the magazine.
Although boho once again appeared to be on the wane by 2009, elements of it were clearly in evidence in collections for spring and summer 2010. advertised "spring's new bohemian trend in full bloom" and "hippie chic tops on loveworn denims", while introduced a perfumed spray called "Boho Chic"., founded in 1973 and still described by the Sunday Times in 2010 as "the boho chic fashion retailer", saw its pre-tax profits rise dramatically during the of the late noughties: from £3.6 million in 2008 to £32.6 million in the year to August 2009.Women wearing bohemian clothing
In 2010 the Sunday Times anticipated that the medieval – "a step on from the hippie head band" – would be a feature of that year's festival circuit, "instantly adding summer bohemia to your look". Socialite 's "beatnik/ mash-up" was cited as an example of this trend, while, model and daughter of rock musician, was identified as another who had adopted the look. Later in the year the Sunday Times lauded the "haute hippie, bohemian splendour and punked up classics" that were putting "a modern spin on 1970s style". These included a cream dress by ("haute hippie") and a dress and fringed by ("boho splendour").
By the late autumn of 2010 The Times noted the desirability in the UK of ("Recession chic lets Britain go full pelt for the fake fur"), with Marks and Spencer and TU retailing bestselling coats at a time of economic stringency. According to, "everyone from Kate Moss to, to [Minogue], Rachel Bilson and to ha[d] been swaddling themselves in exotic cat prints with varying degrees of success". Armstrong speculated also that the "", based on a 1930s snow boot and so-called by its designer because it had "proved a headache to make", might, despite its relatively high cost (£325–375), displace the Ugg, which had been a durable boho accessory. As Armstrong put it wrily, the Impossible was "perfect for " in the fashionably bohemian London districts of or.
Boho Chic Childrens' Fashion Trends
Many parents have also embraced the Boho Chic trends and elements to create and purchase apparel for their children. This particular trend is inspired by the casual American fashion of the 1960s, but as the counterculture included the influences of earlier time periods in its eclectic embrace of style and personal values, it often includes hints of the Victorian, a nod to the fabrics and details of the 1940s, or an homage to the intellectuals of the 1950's.
Influence and exponents
Kate Moss and Sienna Miller
Many, including actress, attributed the boho look to supermodel (who in 1997 had been associated, through an advertising campaign for, with the so-called "" or "" look). In fact the Australian journalist Laura Demasi used the term "boho-chic" as early as October 2002 with reference to Moss and Jade Jagger. In April 2004, the British-born fashion writer was quoted as saying of a lynx mini-top, "Very cool, very bohemian, very Kate Moss–y"; and in 2006 Times fashion editor Lisa Armstrong described a plaited leather belt of the previous year as a "Boho 'Kate' belt". Nevertheless, it was the apparently unaffected ease with which Sienna Miller (dubbed by some as the "new Kate Moss") carried off the look that brought it into the mainstream: even in advertisements for early in 2005 Miller was shown as if casually shopping, while she told Vogue that she had a laid-back approach to grooming, including cutting her own hair.
Established in 1993, the UK clothing label 'OVERIDER' described as 'the brand of a free spirit' and favoured for its understated, effortless, bohemian style exemplifies the 2014 Boho-chic trend.
In 2008 the Sunday Times applied the term "real chic" to a group of "the chicest celebrities", including Miller and actresses and, who "handle the glare of fame with a large dose of reality", Miller being described as "a professional free spirit who, annoyingly, seems to have more fun than anyone else". In that year, Miller's appearance as the poet 's wife, in the film caused one journalist to refer to "a new romantic style: woe-ho chic" This referred to the clothing of the 1940s, worn also in the film by :
A beguillingly shambolic Sienna is seen sobbing on the beach busting a wartime make-do-and-mend look: boiled-wool cardie over flowery tea dress over folded-down wellies over long woolly socks.
One reviewer observed of Miller's role that "Caitlin is meant to be a boho girl and free spirit, which is a posh way of saying she's a drunk who is promiscuous".
Appeal and impact
The cross-generational appeal of boho influenced, among other things, the ranges that brought about a revival in the fortunes of in 2005–06. An illustration of this, just as boho as such appeared to near its end, was M&S's use of 1960s' icon and younger models such as ("the natural choice for the season's bohemian chic") for a major advertising campaign in late 2005. In 2006 the Sunday Times identified fur gilets and "ugg-a-likes" as preferred winter wear for middle-aged women whom it described as the "-and-better-sex-after-40 brigade".
In their differing ways, British singers (who, in 2011, named American singer as her style icon and was by then combining an independent professional career with the lifestyle of a " hippy") and (notwithstanding an early tendency to be associated with photographic spreads for "") were both held up in the mid-noughties as exemplars of boho. So, a few years later, were Diana Vickers and another teenaged singer,. Following an event in 2009, the Daily Mail commented about Vickers that
[she] looked like a cross between a stylish sixties icon and a rambler as she donned a stunning backless dress with a tramp's boots for an X Factor party last night. The 17-year-old, who spent much of her time on the ITV show running around barefoot, opted to cover up her feet with the charity shop footwear. The footwear drew attention away from the singer's stylish sixties style black and red dress which was split open at the back to reveal her."
For her part, Pixie Lott cited French screen goddess and Edie Sedgwick as her fashion icons – and Factory Girl as her favourite film – and defined her look as "vintage clothes, which I mix with contemporary stuff, or I'll be and hippie, with accessories such as rings, chains and headbands... I like to wear girlie things, but only if I can rock them up with biker boots or a jacket". Author and critic Bruce Dessau wrote of American-British actress and singer that "there is something odd about [her] attractive boho-chic appearance in a stringy black vest, vintage beads and blue skirt that I cannot quite locate". In 2007 London Lite contrasted the "gay glamour" of American actress with the "more relaxed, boho look" of her daughter, actress, noting that "keeping the colours neutral, [Hudson]'s careful not to break any style rules, with classy knitwear and good-quality accessories".
Another well-judged exponent of boho, in the second series of ITV's (2005), was Detective Sergeant Emma Scribbins, the character played by.
The impact of boho illustrated certain broader trends in what Shane Watson referred to as "the way we dress now": that fashion was increasingly being dictated, not by the main houses, but what Watson called "the triple-F crowd" (the F referring to the f's in "famous and fashion-forward"), of which Kate Moss, Lindsay Lohan and Sienna Miller were exemplars. Once they had spotted new fashions, young women were not prepared to wait a season for them to become available and, consequently, the familiar boundaries between summer wear and that for autumn and winter were becoming blurred. As, brand director of the clothing chain, put it, "when Sienna wore that gilet, we had to pull them forward fast... She was doing boho in the autumn, and we were expecting it to be a trend for the following spring. Girls see it and they want it immediately".
The practice of meeting such demand, pioneered by the Spanish firm, and of which Shepherdson, until she left Topshop in 2006, was the leading British proponent, became known as "".
Boho-rock and gothic
By Midsummer 2006, the Sunday Times had discerned a trend that fused aspects of boho-chic with " attitude": "It's about wearing a studded leather jacket with a flimsy chiffon number, stomping about town in biker boots... and wearing anything with a skull on it". The newspaper referred to this style, which had been a feature of collections for Autumn 2006 by and, as "boho-rock" and noted that both Sienna Miller and Kate Moss had adopted it. " rock" had similar connotations. A look described by the Sunday Times in Autumn 2006 as "modern goth" was a more stylised version, exuding a " vibe" and contrasting "soft, light fabrics... with the harsh sleekness of patent [leather]".
The gothic look was in vogue again in the autumn of 2007, a sleeker "dark style" being associated with, among others, Sienna Miller, twin actresses and (through their clothing label, The Row), the Australian model and the rising Ukrainian singer (the latter notably in photographs associated with her début album of 2005, Anomaliya). In 2009, lead vocalist of the, described her off-stage image as "understated-rock-boho-chic", while, in the autumn of 2010, under the heading "Boho with bite", the advised readers bohemian fashion for men after "dark, soft, floaty fabrics [to] flirt heavily with leather and lace, and killer heels" and to "think laid-back cool with a shot of ". In some respects this particular refinement harked back to the style of the actress, who became known as "the Vamp" (after "vampire") and habitually used kohl, a black cosmetic prevalent in Eastern countries, to make up her eyes.
In 2009 the rise of British singer (as Florence + the Machine) coincided with the publication of 's study of the private lives of the Brotherhood of the mid-19th century (, 2009) and its dramatisation by BBC television. Welch has cited as her stylistic icons singer, who had been closely associated with the in the 1960s, and her former who used to "come to school in crushed- gowns like a medieval maiden However, her stage image, which owed much to her long dyed, called to mind the pre-Raphaelite who, in certain respects, had anticipated the hippie styles of a century later. Indeed, Welch herself once described her style as " meets [paintings by and ] mixed with scary gothic bat-lady" and declared her attraction to "doomed romantic heroines, like 's [poem] " The cover of Welch's second album (2011) drew very clearly on later Pre-Raphaelite images.
Reflecting on Welch's broader influence, one rock journalist noted in 2010 that "even [of Girls Aloud and an X Factor judge] has gone gothic princess on her... single, "", and she's looking very Florence in the, all black and raggedy ".
Other redheads whose personal style combined elegance with boho and gothic features were English model (who adopted black hair in 2010 – "Golly goth", as one newspaper headline put it) and model/singer. Elson told a Times journalist that she had always been "the weird looking one" in modelling circles and remarked of herself and her then husband of the rock duo that "there's going to be a point when our children view us as the ". (In the 1960s incarnation of for television, based on the characters created by for in 1938, had created a gothic icon with her portrayal of.) Like Welch, Elson exuded pre-Raphaelite features, though a marked gothic strain was also apparent when, as a singer on stage in 2009, she wore a long salmon dress with black lace edging. Similarly, her portfolio that year for combined gothic and boho-rock features, there being, for example, a certain resonance between a black and white brassiere and panties set that formed part of that collection and the black swimsuit in which Zooey Deschanel was photographed in 2008. In 2010 Pixie Lott said that the item of clothing she would save in a fire were her "favourite black frilly shorts".
Duchess of Cambridge
In 2011 some detected a pre-Raphaelite line to the dress, designed by, for 's to, Middleton's somewhat medieval headdress called to mind images from paintings by such later pre-Raphaelites as John Waterhouse and, the overall impression being especially apparent in a side-on double page photograph of the couple by on the cover of the following day's edition of the London Times.
Boho terminology of 2004–10
In advance of Glastonbury 2004, the Sunday Times coined the term "festival chic", for a style with some similarities to boho. It subsequently labelled a photographic spread of Sienna Miller, Lauren Bailey, and other muses of Matthew Williamson as "boho babes", advised its readers to "think art-school chic" by adopting layers of clashing colours and, in 2006, noted that "last year's boho babe" had become "this year's boho-rock chick".
Almost an extension of "festival chic", the Telegraph coined the term "foho" to describe the evolution of the boho style in the summer of 2007. According to the newspaper, this look, which took its influence from both boho style and "the heavy influence of folk culture", had been seen on the likes of Sienna Miller and Kate Moss.
The London Evening Standard referred to "hippie chic" (a term used in the 1990s with reference to the velvet created by for the Italian house of ) in a feature about "gypsy queens", while the Sunday Times, reflecting on what "the fashion world called... boho chic", referred to Sienna Miller's having created "the retro hippie look that swept Britain's high streets". In 2007 London Lite hailed the return of "hippy, hippy chic" and, as noted, Fashion Union marketed "hippie chic" tops in 2010.
"Boho-by-default" was an unflattering description used by Lisa Armstrong to describe the style of women ("gargoyles" as opposed to "summer goddesses") who, for summer wear, "drag the same greying, crumpled boho-by-default mess out of storage every year".
Morocco and Talitha Getty
In 2006 the Sunday Times described the resort and seaport of as the "boho/barefoot-chic beach" because of its association with fashionable "Euro aesthetes with their Talitha Getty-esque kaftans". The latter was a reference to an iconic photograph of, wife of, that was taken by in in 1969. This image was described by Lisa Armstrong as "typif[ying] the luxe bohemian look". Anticipating Glastonbury 2005, Hedley Freeman in the Guardian had recommended the wearing of headscarves to achieve "Talitha Getty chic".
Olsen twins and American bobo
In the United States, and, especially the former, were credited with a "homeless" look, first identified as such in, in late 2004, that had many "boho" features (large sunglasses, flowing skirts, boots and loose jumpers). This was sometimes referred to as "ashcan chic". The term, "bobo chic" (also known as "-grunge", "" or ""), had similar connotations, "bobo" (or "BoBo") being a contraction of "" and "bohemian" coined by New York Times columnist in his book, (2000).
Bobo chic was associated in particular with in the area of, to the south of Greenwich Village. It was described by a student fashion writer as "paying to look poor" and having been "made popular by silver screen stars who all look like they got dressed in the dark like the Olsen twins, and ". In 2008 English actress, who had attended in the 1990s, remarked wryly that she had "wor[n] floaty dresses at university... thinking that I looked poetic and wistful. I actually looked homeless". Another British commentator referred to Mary-Kate Olsen's "everything-but-the-kitchen-sink approach to dressing", but noted that, by 2006, the Olsens' merchandising empire was recording annual sales of £500 million.
Cocktail grunge and the catwalk
A "", a refinement in 2006, of which actresses and were said to be exponents, was referred to as "cocktail grunge" – "looking done-undone... it's what Marianne Faithfull and would be wearing if they were young now". – while a journalist who interviewed supermodel in 2011 observed that, fresh from a photoshoot, she "flopped in a leather armchair like a sexy, ageing beatnik" and that, while "not a hippie, exactly", she lived in " bohemia in Manhattan, where you can spot [her] moseying around the on the weekends". At the end of the 2000s (decade), this combination of apparently conflicting features was adopted by teenaged actress, who, in 2010, became the "face" of the British retailing chain. Momsen described her style as "sweet and tough, meets – a giant " and claimed that she chose her outfits from "whatever clean clothes she finds on her floor" ("although no one ever believes me").
French bobos and similar stylists
In the world of fashion, the term bobo (short for ), which also had political connotations, was applied to "typically discerning customers who are and "; or, put another way, "that subset of -year-olds who don't allow their socialist leanings to interfere with an enjoyment of material pleasures". As such, la gauche caviar [the left] was sometimes applied as an epithet to bobos.
The bobo style of dress has been described as "retro-hippie-", its elements including tops, jackets, smart, and leather bags by (born 1974). A leading exponent was actress and singer, who particularly favoured the designs of (born 1967), while English actress, best known for her part as Lady Mary Crawley in the early 20th century drama (2010–14), cited Anglo-French actress as one of her style icons: "I love that she looks like she's just thrown it on. Simplicity is true elegance". Around the same time, another British actress, best known as in the BBC's science-fiction series, defined the look of 1960s model, whom she greatly admired and had just portrayed in a filmed drama for television, as "messy,, bony". She herself professed a liking for vintage clothing:
"When girls do the walk of shame... I think they look best like that, slightly dishevelled." The Kate Moss look? "Yeah".
Some of the teenaged rock bands, such as and the, that emerged in France c. 2006 and were known collectively as les bébés rockers ("baby rockers"), were initially derided in some sections of the press because of their bobo backgrounds: as Kate Spicer observed in the Sunday Times, "it's as if a bunch of privileged kids had picked up their guitars and proclaimed themselves the new ". By 2010 bobos – "free-thinkers at the weekend, but bankers Monday to Friday" – were said to be squeezing out young, genuinely creative Parisians from their traditional neighborhoods, with, in the 20th, cited as an alternative base for "the next generation of diverse Parisian voices".Spanish Gypsies, 1917 (National Geographic)
The name "Bourgeois Boheme" was adopted in 2005 by a British company, founded by Alicia Lai, that marketed "ethnically sourced" fashion accessories and cosmetics and, by 2009, had moved into handmade shoes crafted from such materials as hemp and organic cotton.
Although boho-chic in the early years of the 21st century represented a definite style, it was not a "movement." Nor was it noticeably associated with bohemianism as such. Jessica Brinton saw it as "the tagging and selling of the bohemian dream to the masses for £5.99". Indeed, the Sunday Times thought it ironic that "fashionable girls wore ruffly floral skirts in the hope of looking bohemian, nomadic, spirited and non-bourgeois", whereas "gypsy girls themselves... are sexy and delightful precisely because they do not give a hoot for fashion". By contrast, in the first half of the 20th century, aspects of bohemian fashion were a reflection of the lifestyle itself.
In fact, most of the components of boho had, in one way or another, drifted in and out of fashion since the "" of 1967 when and were at their peak. As journalist Bob Stanley put it, "the late 1960s are never entirely out of fashion, they just need a fresh angle to make them de jour".
- Among the Bohemians: Experiments in Living 1900–1939, 2002
- A. N. Wilson (2005) After the Victorians
- A Scandal in Bohemia, 1891
- Sunday Times Style, 20 August 2006
- Style, 26 December 2004
- , April 2004
- Closer, 10–16 September 2005
- Vogue, December 2006
- Sunday Times Style, 5 August 2007.
- Sunday Times, 15 October 2006
- London Lite, 18 July 2007
- Harvey, Catriona (2015-10-13).. Getlippy.com. Retrieved 2015-11-09.
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- Style, 16 May 2005
- ^ Style, 1 May 2005
- ^ Sunday Times Style, 5 August 2007
- Hair, June 2007
- Vogue, January 2007
- Times Magazine, 23 September 2006
- ^ Sunday Times Style, 18 March 2007
- ^ Deborah Arthurs, London Lite, 14 May 2007
- Iain Stewart, Ibiza & Formentera (Rough Guide Directions, 2nd ed., 2008)
- Sandy Mitchell, The Tatler, November 2010. The particular context of Jagger's observations was her styling of a group of villas in Marrakech.
- Sunday Times Style, 17 October 2010
- Sunday Times Style, 16 January 2005
- Sienna Miller, Sunday Times Style, 17 October 2010
- Harriet Stewart, Sunday Times Style, 17 July 2011
- ^ Deborah Arthurs in London Lite, 3 September 2007
- Alice Fordham in Sunday Times Style, 13 July 2008
- Sky Mag, June 2008
- Your M&S, May/June 2008. was the title of 1975 hit record by the British rock group.
- thelondonpaper, 1 June 2008
- . Future Movies. Retrieved 2015-11-09.
- May 2, 2010, at the.
- . Blackbookmag.com. 2008-05-22. Retrieved 2015-11-09.
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- Notably a purple demi bra by in series 2, episode 15 ("Cooler")
- Toni Jones in Daily Mail, 15 August 2012; Rachel Felder in New York Times, 13 February 2013.
- Fifty Shades of Grey, chapter 8
- Mail on Sunday, You, 11 July 2010
- See, for example, The Sun, 7 October 2008
- Metro, 7 November 2013; FHM, January 2014. In one photograph Vickers was holding a copy of 's.
- Fashion Union, The Fashionista's Pocket Guide to Miami, Spring 2010
- Sunday Times Business, 21 March 2010. In early 2010 Monsoon planned to open a further 140 stores worldwide in the coming year.
- Sunday Times Style, 13 June 2010
- Lucy Ewing, Sunday Times Style, 17 October 2010
- . Magnolia Lake Clothing. Retrieved 5 February 2017.
- . Vogue.co.uk. 2005-08-11. Retrieved 2015-11-09.
- New York Magazine, 5 April 2004
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- See, for example, London Evening Standard, 5 November 2004
- Jessica Brinton, Sunday Times Style, 6 April 2008
- Fleur Britten, Sunday Times Style, 28 April 2008
- Britten, 28 April 2008
- Cosmo Landesman, Sunday Times Culture, 22 June 2008
- Your M&S, Christmas 2005
- ^ Style, 18 June 2006
- You, Mail on Sunday, 24 July 2011
- Mail on Sunday Live, 11 September 2011
- In 2001 and 2002, Stevens was voted the second "sexiest woman in the World" by readers in the UK.
- . Dailymail.co.uk. 2009-03-26. Retrieved 2015-11-09.
- ^ Mail on Sunday, 3 October 2010
- The Times, 12 June 2006
- Camilla St John, London Lite, 14 May 2007
- ^ Style, 17 September 2006
- Josephine Collins (Draper's Magazine), Today, BBC Radio 4, 6 October 2006
- The Scotsman, 30 April 2003
- Claudia Croft, Style, 2 July 2006
- Evening Standard Magazine, 15 September 2006
- Britt Bardo, Style, 24 September 2006
- thelondonpaper, 24 October 2007
- Interview with Jane Gordon, You, Mail on Sunday, 5 July 2009
- Caroline Baker in You, Mail on Sunday, 3 October 2010
- Tatler, June 2010
- Quoted in The Times Saturday Review, 29 October 2011
- Mail on Sunday, 8 August 2010. Welch first dyed her hair red at the age of 10 and when she was 11 – during her "goth period" – wore it black: Mail on Sunday, 1 May 2011.
- See, for example, Francesca Ryan, Daily Telegraph, 4 June 2009; John Harris, The Guardian, 27 February 2010
- Jeremy Maas, "The Pre-Raphaelites: A Personal View" in Leslie Parris (1984) The Pre-Raphaelite Papers; Fiona MacCarthy (2011) The Last Pre-Raphaelite: Edward Burne-Jones and the Victorian Imagination. Welch denied in 2009 that she herself was a hippy – "I'm just an emotional creature": quoted in The Times Saturday Review, 29 October 2011.
- Quoted by Jane Gordon in Mail on Sunday, 1 May 2011
- Quoted in The Times Saturday Review, loc.cit.
- Cf., for example, The Baleful Head by Edward Burne-Jones (1874), whose 2011 biographer has described him as "a perfect artist for that period [late 1960s] of flower power, sex, drugs and rock 'n'roll" (Fiona MacCarthy, op.cit.).
- Rebecca Nicholson in Sunday Times Culture, 19 September 2010
- Daily Mail, 27 November 2010
- The Times Playlist, 8 May 2010. See also ES Magazine, 14 May 2010: "Karen Elson and Jack White: The Addams Family of Rock".
- Wasilak, Sarah.. Fabsugar.co.uk. Retrieved 2015-11-09.
- BlackBook, June/July 2008 (supra)
- See, for example, Tim Adams in The Guardian, 30 April 2011
- In her biography of Burne-Jones (The Last Pre-Raphaelite, 2011), Fiona MacCarthy referred to a "special kind of mysticism" in his major works. Citing this observation in a review, David Waller observed that "the girls are high born and ethereal, the men dreamy and knightly, the whole transfused with an idiosyncratic beauty": History Today, October 2011, page 62.
- The Times, 30 April 2011
- Style, 6 June 2004
- Style, 16 January 2005
- Style, 2 July 2006
- Clare Coulson, The birth of Foho, 16 May 2007
- Evening Standard Magazine, 11 March 2005
- Dean Nelson, Sunday Times, 15 October 2006
- London Lite, 14 May 2007. "Hippy, hippy chic" was a pun on, the title of a 1963 hit record by the
- Times Magazine, 1 July 2006
- The Times, 2 November 2006
- Hedley Freeman, Guardian, 24 June 2005
- La Ferla, Ruth (2005-03-06).. The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 2007-11-08.
- Sunday Times, 7 January 2007
- Kristale Ivezay, The South End, 8 April 2005
- Quoted in The Times Body & Soul, 9 August 2008
- Jessica Brinton, Style, 22 October 2006
- Jessica Paster, Style, 24 September 2006
- Giles Hattersley in Sunday Times Style, 17 July 2011
- Metro, 13 May 2010
- Carola Long in The Times Guide to Paris Fashion and Style, October 2006
- ^ National Geographic, August 2003
- Sunday Times Style, 25 March 2007
- The Times Guide to Paris Fashion and Style October 2006
- . modeaparis.com. Retrieved 2015-11-09.
- The Times Luxx, 26 November 2011. Dockery added that, when wearing long dresses, she tried not to look "too Downton Abbey"... I like to make it a little bit more edgy".
- Sunday Times Magazine, 1 January 2012
- Second Sex took their name from the of that name (1949) by.
- Sunday Times Style, 25 March 2007. Islington is an upper-middle class area of London; the Sex Pistols were a leading band of the late 1970s.
- Brian Scofield, Sunday Times Travel, 18 July 2010
- Sunday Times, 18 July 2010
- Country Life, 21 October 2009
- Style, 20 August 2006
- Style, 19 June 2006
- The Times Knowledge, 24 June 2006
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