The 1920s was a of the that began on January 1, 1920, and ended on December 31, 1929. In, it is frequently referred to as the "" or the "", while in the period is sometimes referred to as the "" because of the economic boom following. French speakers refer to the period as the "" (“Crazy Years”), emphasizing the era's social, artistic, and cultural dynamism.
The economic prosperity experienced by many countries during the 1920s (especially the United States) was similar in nature to that experienced in the 1950s and 1990s. Each period of prosperity was the result of a in global affairs. These shifts in the 1920s, 1950s, and 1990s, occurred in part as the result of the conclusion of and,, and the, respectively.
The 1920s saw foreign oil companies begin operations throughout. became the world's second largest oil producing nation.
In some countries the 1920s saw the rise of radical political movements, especially in regions that were once part of empires. spread as a consequence of the and the ' victory in the. Fear of the spread of Communism led to the emergence of political movements and in Europe. Economic problems contributed to the emergence of dictators in and the, to include in the, and and in the.
The devastating in October 1929 is generally viewed as a harbinger of the end of 1920s prosperity in and.
Main articles: and
The Roaring Twenties brought about several novel and highly visible social and cultural trends. These trends, made possible by sustained economic prosperity, were most visible in major cities like New York, Chicago, Paris, Berlin and London. to politics in the wake of hyper-emotional patriotism during World War I, blossomed, and peaked. For women, knee-length skirts and dresses became socially acceptable, as did bobbed hair with a. The women who pioneered these trends were frequently referred to as.
The era saw the large-scale adoption of automobiles, telephones, motion pictures, radio and household electricity, as well as unprecedented industrial growth, accelerated consumer demand and aspirations, and significant changes in lifestyle and culture. The media began to focus on celebrities, especially sports heroes and movie stars. Large were built in major U.S. cities, in addition to palatial.
Most independent countries passed after 1918, especially as a reward for women's support of the war effort and endurance of its deaths and hardships.
Politics and wars
Major political changes
- Rise of radical political movements such as and, amid the economic and political turmoil after World War I and after the stock market crash
Decolonization and independence
- gains independence from the United Kingdom in 1922.
- officially becomes an independent country through the, though it still remains under the military and political influence of the.
Prominent political events
- to end war
- movement continues to make gains as women obtain full voting rights in (1893), the (1906), Denmark (1915), the United Kingdom in 1918 (women over 30) and in 1928 (full enfranchisement), and in the United States in 1920
- Women begin to enter the workplace in larger numbers
North AmericaProhibition agents emptying barrels of alcohol.
- Prohibition of alcohol occurs in the United States. began January 16, 1919, with the ratification of the to the, effective as of January 17, 1920, and it continued throughout the 1920s. Prohibition was finally repealed in 1933. turns to and of, led by figures such as, boss of the.
- The places restrictions on immigration. National quotas curbed most Eastern and Southern European nationalities, further enforced the ban on immigration of East Asians, and Africans, and put mild regulations on nationalities from the Western Hemisphere (Latin Americans).
- The major sport was and the most famous player was.
- The (which characterized disillusionment), was the name gave to American writers, poets, and artists living in Europe during the 1920s. Famous members of the include,,,,,,,,, and.
- A peak in the early 1920s in the membership of the of four to five million members (after its reemergence in 1915), followed by a rapid decline down to an estimated 30,000 members by 1930.
- The (1925), which declared that had violated the law by teaching in schools, creating tension between the competing theories of and evolutionism.
- Major armed conflict in Ireland including (1919–1921) resulting in Ireland becoming an independent country in 1922 followed by the (1922–23).
- The (Soviet Union) is created in 1922.
- leader of the became, shortly thereafter creating the world's first government. The Fascist regime establishes a state led by Mussolini as a dictator. The Fascist regime restores good relations between the and Italy with the, which creates. The Fascist regime pursues an aggressive expansionist agenda in Europe such as by raiding the of in 1923, pressuring to submit to becoming a Italian in the mid-1920s, and holding territorial aims on the region of in.
- In Germany, the suffers from economic crisis in the early 1920s and of currency in 1923. From 1923 to 1925 the takes place. The was an industrial region of Germany taken over by the military forces of the and Belgium, in response to the failure of the Weimar Republic under Chancellor to keep paying the. The recently formed fringe (a.k.a. Nazi Party) led by attempts a coup against the Bavarian and German governments in the 1923, which fails, resulting in Hitler being briefly imprisoned for one year in prison where he writes Mein Kampf.
- Economic boom ended by “" (October 29, 1929); the, leading to the. The market actually began to drop on Thursday October 24, 1929, and the fall continued until the huge crash on Tuesday October 29, 1929.
- The is created by the Bolsheviks in the, to be replaced by the in 1928.
- The, which lasted from 1924 to 1928.
- Average annual inflation for the decade was virtually zero but individual years ranged from a high of 3.47% in 1925 to a deflationary -11% in 1921.
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Assassinations and attempts
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Prominent assassinations, targeted killings, and assassination attempts include:
Science and technology
- invents the first working system (1925). In 1928 he invents and demonstrates the first.
- produces the first movie with a soundtrack in 1926, followed by the first Part-Talkie in 1927, the first All-Talking movie in 1928 and the first All-Color All-Talking movie, 1929. start giving way to. By 1936, the transition phase arguably ends, with being the last notable silent film.
- invents the modern electronic in 1897. The CRT became a commercial product in 1922.
- (such as, and ) introduce an electrical recording process on their phonograph records in 1925 (that had been developed by ), resulting in a more lifelike sound.
- The first is patented in 1928 by the American manufacturer Col..
- The first selective being introduced in 1927 by the Automated Musical Instrument Company.
- revolutionizes the field of applied electronics by inventing the in 1927.
- invents a process for in 1925.
- makes the first flight of a in 1926.
M1 Thompson rifle (1921 model)
- becomes the first person to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean (May 20–21, 1927), nonstop from to.
- Howard Carter opens the innermost shrine of King 's tomb near Luxor, Egypt, 1922
- In 1928 Alexander Fleming discovers the
In 1928 Alexander Fleming discovers the penicillin
Howard Carter opens the innermost shrine of King Tutankhamun's tomb near Luxor, Egypt, 1922
Main article:The most memorable fashion trend of the Roaring Twenties was undoubtedly “” look.
The 1920s is the decade in which fashion entered the modern era. It was the decade in which women first abandoned the more restricting fashions of past years and began to wear more comfortable clothes (such as short skirts or trousers). Men also abandoned highly formal daily attire and even began to wear athletic clothing for the first time. The suits men wear today are still based, for the most part, on those worn in the late 1920s. The 1920s are characterized by two distinct periods of fashion. In the early part of the decade, change was slow, as many were reluctant to adopt new styles. From 1925, the public passionately embraced the styles associated with the Roaring Twenties. These styles continue to characterize fashion until the worldwide depression worsened in 1931.
MusicThe period from the end of the First World War until the start of the Depression in 1929 is known as the ""
- First commercial radio stations in the U.S., 8MK (WWJ) in and () in,, go on the air on August 27, 1920.
- Both stations broadcast the election results between Harding and Cox in early November. The first station to receive a commercial license is, then in Springfield MA, in mid-September 1921. While there are only a few radio stations in 1920–21, by 1922 the radio craze is sweeping the country.
- 1922: The begins radio broadcasting in the as the British BroadcastingCompany, a consortium between radio manufacturers and newspapers. It became a public broadcaster in 1926.
- On August 27, 1920, regular wireless broadcasts for entertainment began in for the first time, by a Buenos Aires group including. The station is soon called. (See.)
- Beginning of movement.
- becomes fashionable.
- paints in 1921.
- paints, 1920
- completes (The Large Glass).
- The opens in Manhattan, November 7, 1929, nine days after the.
- The first,, begins January 7, 1929. The first comic strip begins on the same date.
- publishes some of the most enduring novels characterizing the Jazz Age.,, and, as well as three short story collections, were all published in these years.
- publishes and
- awarded for in 1920, in 1922, and in 1928.
- publishes,,,, and
- publishes the
- publishes, and
- publishes,,, and
- publishes his inaugural novel
- begins to write and draw the comic strip (August 5, 1924} and continues to do so until his death in 1968.
- publishes in 1926
- publishes 1923 and in 1928
- publishes his first book of poetry,
- publishes and
- publishes in 1928
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- March 26: Schooner launched
- May 26: the conducts their first sports car race
- October: The New York Yankees win the, the first title for the team.
- May 28: invites non-French athletes for the first time
- Germany and Belgium in first international tournament.
- Youth culture of ;, the, and the.
- Fads such as,, and are popular.
- The height of the.
- The centered in a thriving community of, New York City.
- Since the 1920s scholars have methodically dug into the layers of history that lie buried at thousands of sites across China.
- The tomb of is discovered intact by (1922). This begins a second revival of.
- Twiglets are invented in December 1929 by Frenchman, and sold by.
The following articles contain brief timelines listing the most prominent events of the decade:
• • • • • • • • •
- Retrieved 2009-09-03
- Andrew Lamb (2000).. Yale U.P. p. 195.
- Wilkins, Mira (1974). "Multinational Oil Companies in South America in the 1920s: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru". The Business History Review. 48 (3): 414–446. :.
- Price, S (1999). "What made the twenties roar?". 131 (10): 3–18.
- .. Archived from on 2012-08-25. Retrieved July 19, 2012. and Lay, Shawn....
- . Inflation Data. Retrieved 23 April 2014.
- Altgelt, roaring 20s dresses 2018 Carlos A.. The Broadcast Archive. Retrieved 5 November 2017.
- The Great Bull Market: Wall Street in the 1920s. (1968)
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